Turkey - Political parties

Party descriptions and CMP left-right scores
Party Type 95 99 02 Average
CHP Social Democratic -14.9 -13.2 -13.2 -13.8
MHP Nationalist 28.1 28.1
SP -

The table shows the periodical scores on left-right position as given in the Comparative Manifesto Project (Volkens, Andrea, et.al., 2010). The scores range from -100 (left) to +100 (right).

Type: Tentative grouping of political parties and alliances based on information provided in the Comparative Manifesto Project and from party descriptions in Europa World Yearbook, Encyclopædia Britannica and in election reports from the European Journal of Political Research and/or Electoral Studies.

AKP - Justice and Development Party - (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi)

Founded in 2001. Came to power in Turkey in the general elections of 2002. In spite of the party’s nonconfessional mandate, the AKP draws significant support from nonsecular Turks and has faced objections from some segments of Turkish society that it harbours an Islamist agenda that could undermine Turkey’s secular foundation. The success of the AKP in the early 2000s can be traced to inroads made in the 1990s by the Welfare Party (WP; Refah Partisi), an Islamic party founded in 1983. Buoyed by the increasing role of Islam in Turkish life in the 1980s and ’90s the WP won an overwhelming victory in the 1995 parliamentary elections and became the first Islamic party ever to win a general election in Turkey. In January 1998, however, the WP was banned by Turkey’s constitutional court on charges of disturbing the secular order. A number of its members joined another Islamic party, the newly formed Virtue Party (VP; Fazilet Partisi), but in June 2001 it too was banned. Later that year a group led by Abdullah Gül and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan struck out to form the AKP.

CHP - Republican People's Party - (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi)

Founded 1923 by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk); dissolved in 1981 and reactivated in 1992; merged with Sosyal Demokrat Halkçı Parti (Social Democratic Populist Party) in February 1995 and with the Yeni Türkiye Partisi in October 2004; left-wing.

MHP - Nationalist Movement/Action Party - (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi)

Founded in 1983 as the Conservative Party (MP - Muhafazakar Parti).

SP - Felicity Party - (Saadet Partisi)

Founded in 2001. Replaced conservative wing of Islamist fundamentalist and free-market advocating Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party), which was banned in that year.


Political Organizations (Turkey), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Bergen. Retrieved 20 June 2011 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/tr.dir.773

Justice and Development Party. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1018363/Justice-and-Development-Party

Budge, I.; Klingemann, H.-D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Tanenbaum, E., with Fording, R.C.; Hearl, D.J.; Kim, H.M.; McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klingemann, H.D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Budge, I.; McDonald, M. (2006). Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Volkens, Andrea; Lacewell, Onawa; Regel, Sven; Schultze, Henrike; Werner, Annika (2010): The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR), Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB): http://manifesto-project.wzb.eu/